Ironclad
is a cryptography library written entirely in Common Lisp.
The project's homepage promises only a *rudimentary*
support for public-key cryptography and explains later that—

Support for RSA encryption and decryption is provided as well, but it is "raw"—the various formatting schemes (e.g. PKCS–1) must be implemented by the user at this time.The project's

RSA, Elgamal, elliptic-curve crypto, and others remain to be added. One issue that has yet to be resolved is how to handle the myriad signature/encryption schemes for RSA.

While the above clarifies why the library's support
for public-key cryptography
is called rudimentary, it left me wondering which RSA operations *can*
be done with Ironclad in its present form (considering the fact that the
last time `src/public-key/rsa.lisp` was modified was a minor change made
more than three years ago).

Skimming over the file discovers that the basics of RSA *are* there
and they can be used for applications that do not have interoperability
requirements—for instance, when the intended application implements both
parties of a communication channel which is protected with RSA. Moreover, using these basics
requires very little effort, which I am going to demonstrate below.

In particular, I was interested in signing messages with RSA, verification of RSA signatures, and generation of RSA keys. To achieve that, I wrote the following source:

1 (in-package :ironclad)
2
3 (defclass rsa-signature ()
4 ((s :initarg :s :reader rsa-signature-s)))
5
6 (defun make-rsa-signature (s)
7 (make-instance 'rsa-signature :s s))
8
9 (defmethod sign-message ((key rsa-private-key) message &key (start 0) end)
10 (make-rsa-signature (encrypt-message key (subseq message start end))))
11
12 (defmethod verify-signature ((key rsa-public-key)
13 message
14 (signature rsa-signature)
15 &key (start 0) end)
16 (let ((nonzero (position-if #'plusp message :start start :end end)))
17 (not (mismatch (subseq message nonzero end)
18 (encrypt-message key (rsa-signature-s signature))))))
19
20 (defun make-rsa-key-pair (bits &optional (e 65537) (prng *prng*))
21 (flet ((find-prime (bits)
22 (do ((x (generate-prime bits prng) (generate-prime bits prng))
23 (attempts 10 (decf attempts)))
24 ((= (egcd (1- x) e) 1) x)
25 (when (zerop attempts) (error "Failed to produce a prime")))))
26 (let* ((bits-p (floor (1+ bits) 2))
27 (bits-q (- bits bits-p))
28 (p (find-prime bits-p))
29 (q (find-prime bits-q))
30 (n (* p q))
31 (d (modular-inverse e (* (1- p) (1- q)))))
32 (values (make-private-key :rsa :n n :d d)
33 (make-public-key :rsa :n n :e e)))))
34
35 (eval-when (:compile-toplevel :load-toplevel)
36 (export '(make-rsa-key-pair rsa-signature-s)))

When loaded, this code specialises the generic method
`SIGN-MESSAGE` (on lines 9–10) for the class
`RSA-PRIVATE-KEY`. This specialisation produces
instances of a new class, `RSA-SIGNATURE` (defined on lines 3–4)
which holds an unformatted result of exponentiation.

In additon, the program specialises the generic method
`VERIFY-SIGNATURE` (on lines 12–18) for the
class `RSA-PUBLIC-KEY` and for the class `RSA-SIGNATURE`.

Besides that, there is a new function, `MAKE-RSA-KEYPAIR` that
generates an RSA key which is `bits`
bit long and has `e` as its public exponent.
Finding the first non-zero byte of a specified sub-sequence of
the message on line 16 is required
because objects of the class `RSA-SIGNATURE` store the byte
representation of a `BIGNUM`
which has no zero-padding on the left while the message may be produced
by a hashing algorithm that returns byte arrays of the same length
that may have leading zeroes.

The lines 35–36 export the methods `MAKE-RSA-KEYPAIR`
and `RSA-SIGNATURE-S` to users of the package `IRONCLAD.`
The latter (defined on line 4) is required for extraction of signatures
from instances of `RSA-SIGNATURE`.

This code can be tested with the function `TEST-RSA`:

1 (defun test-rsa (digest)
2 (multiple-value-bind (private-key public-key) (crypto:make-rsa-key-pair 2048)
3 (crypto:verify-signature public-key
4 digest
5 (crypto:sign-message private-key digest))))

which generates a 2048-bit key and uses it to sign a
`TEST-RSA` can be invoked from the `REPL` as follows:

CL-USER> (setf crypto:*prng* (crypto:make-prng :fortuna))
CL-USER> (test-rsa (crypto:hex-string-to-byte-array "0102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f01020304"))

*Caveat emptor!* Existing applications and libraries, such as OpenSSL,
know absolutely nothing about the format of RSA keys and signatures produced
by Ironclad—see the remark of the author of Ironclad regarding formatting
schemes which I quoted in the beginning of this article.

Vadim Penzin, October 9^{th}, 2015

I hereby place this article and the accompanying source code into the public domain.

I publish this information in the hope that it will be useful,
but without ANY WARRANTY.

You are responsible for any and
all consequences that may arise as the result of using this
information.